What is the molecular mechanism by which the variant affects organismal traits and fitness (Dalziel et al. 2009)?; what is the selective mechanism responsible for allelic differences in fitness?; did the variant arise by mutation more than once (Elmer and Meyer 2011)?; and when did each unique instance of the variant arise and spread (Slatkin and Rannala 2000)?
Understanding these dates can give indirect evidence regarding the selective pressure that may underlie the adaptation
n humans, for example, dispersal across the globe has resulted in the occupation of a wide variety of habitats, and in several cases, selection in response to specific ecological pressures appears to have taken place.
linkage disequilibrium (LD)
stochastic outcome of survival,
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