High temperature during the grain-filling stage causes deleterious effects on the yield and quality of crop products (Peng et al., 2004).
Such small grains result in not only decreased yield but also low milling quality. For japonica cultivars of rice, temperatures higher than 26°C render chalky grain appearance as well as reduction of grain weight.
Severely chalky brown rice grains are inferior for polishing quality and palatability. The chalky grains ripened under high temperature conditions resulted in lower yield after polishing and less sticky texture after cooking than translucent grains ripened under low temperature (Table I
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