Our pharmacological profiling indicated that only fatty acids harboring the ω-3 double bond were able to exhibit Gs activities
The surfaces and equipment were thoroughly rinsed with distilled water to remove degraded nucleic acids and DNA ZAPTM residue.
Confirmation of earlier findings As Lucia, a teacher, notes, speaking of the importance of empathy, it is vital to provide students with the “opportunities to think and discuss their ideas (...) [as] many of our behaviors and stereotypes have to do with the fact that we never thought about it. We learned ‘that’ way and ‘that’ is the norm.” These experiences are described as envisioning supporting students to become “critically self-reflective” (Mezirow, 2003, 2006), linked to an idea of coding (and subsequent decoding) of an existential situation, as posed by Freire (1972)
participatory and democratic environment
“dichotomy between representational ‘textbook’ knowing, and ontological ‘other’ encounters”
principle of legality
A model inspired by the conflicts in early modern Europe can help explain why Europe’s kings and princes advanced the gunpowder technology and why rulers elsewhere in Eurasia lagged behind.
Europeans dominated the gunpowder technology in the 1700s, despite it originating in China.
The rulers of major European powers invested in military technology to establish outposts and wage war.
Political incentives and military conditions explain Europe's dominance.
War will be likely to stop if the fixed costs rise, or if a ruler annihilates his opponents and conquers their realms
Wealthy fathers tended to produce wealthy sons This implies in turn that the rich were passing on their reproductive advantage to their children.
Introduction Unti the revision of more than 400 laws concerning local autonomy, known as the decentralization reforms, extensive use had been made of local governments as central governmen implementing agents through the system of agency-delegated functions. Central governments increasingly rely on localities and private actors to provide services formerly delivered by the nation state As result of this ongoing shift of power between political actors in Japan one central researc question emerges: To which extent have these reforms impacted the nature of Japan's loca democracy especially with regard to citizen participation and local interest intermediation?. The debate on socia and political change in post-industrial societies, implies a growing dealignment from the established parties and a decline in the turnout rate This decline is expected to go hand in hand with an increase in participation through non-institutionalised channels. The section will focus on level and the changing modes of citizen involvement in characteristics of the local party system are analyzed. implications of the reforms' impact on the nature of Japan's The Legislative Framework for Local De The local government system in Japan is a two-tired syst and approximately 1,800 municipal authorities that carry ou ward, town, and village level. In the 2007 election in the Tokyo city wards, for e 1,203 candidates ran for 913 seats, which means that nearly 76 percent of all can successful, and only slightly more than one percent of the votes were required t In the rural environments of the Tokyo prefecture, which comprise wards of the former city, and 26 cities, 4 towns and villages and 9 isl competition is even lower. The introduction of manifestos for local government elections is expected to encourage candidates to work harde write feasible and attractive policy proposals as a means of attracting votes. The local system works towards benefiting smaller parties and independent candida and offers them a greater chance of election to a public office than the national voting sys does The latter only allows independents to run in single-seat districts and requires majority of the districts' votes for election.. 2009] AFTER THE REFORM: HOW IS JAPAN S LOCAL DEMOCRACY CHANGING? 17 campaign and election are more likely to focus on the candidate than on the pa government level, regulations foster strong executive leadership and less party politisa Conventional Political Participation The past decades have seen a rapid and widely noted de voter turnout rates and, simultaneously, a significant rise in the number of po supporters. The trends towards non- voting and political apathy are ob As Figure 2 demonstrates, voter turnout has decreased in all elections. Note : 1999-2006: Number of registered NPOs as of December of the respective year; 2007: as of Nov earthquake in January 1995, which is said to have ushered in the "Age of Volu Japan (Kamimura 2001: 4), are not reflected by these data. This is mainly due to th covering volunteer activities that are concentrated on specific days The data rath about the overall decline of civic and political activism Putnam 2000) The Rise of Independents Independents have always played a major role in Japanese politics. The national parties always played a major role in the Tokyo city parliaments' assemblies, with independents only gaining around 4% of the vote in 1979. The national parties always played a major role in the Tokyo city parliaments' assemblies, with independents only gaining around 4% of the vote in 1979 Their share grew only slightly to 6% in 1990, but has increased significantly since to 14% in 2006. When local representatives are directly elected by the people, it removes the party politics layer and these representatives can take a stronger leadership role than their counterparts at the national level. Burst of the bubble economy in the 1990s, nationa borrowings to deal with budget deficits; undertake strict fiscal measures to repay their borrowing increasingly introduced private sector management rather than the needs of the population Women as New Actors on the Sub-National Level The onset of decentralisation provides an opportunity to raise questions of women's sp and citizenship in state processes. In the House of Councillors, the percentage of female representatives was a higher than in the Lower House, reaching approximately fourteen percent in the 2004 ele (Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office 2006: 23). Overa percentage of female assembly members in sub-national parliaments has increased fr than three percent in 1990 to approximately nine percent in 2006. Backed by 1.38 m voters in Osaka prefecture, Ôta Fusae, a former bureaucrat at the Ministry of Intern Trade and Industry (MITI), became the first female governor of Japan in 2000. Backed by 1.38 m voters in Osaka prefecture, Ôta Fusae, a former bureaucrat at the Ministry of Intern Trade and Industry (MITI), became the first female governor of Japan in 2000 Sh followed by those of Kumamoto, Chiba and Shiga prefectures, and in 2006 five of governors were female (Table 3). Note : LDP= Liberal Democratic Party; DPJ= Democratic Party of Japan; SDPJ= Social Democratic Party of Japan New Parties The Citizen Networks are achi notable success in local politics Even though they are still underrepresented in rural areas have become a serious political force in urban city councils. The Networks have been able to increase their influence su and to take part in local and prefectural politics to restructure Japanese societ egalitarian way. The impact of these Networks on local politics has been particular m with regard to women's role in the Networks. Even though they do not exclude men Networks, all candidates have to date been female. The rise of new actors at the local level may weaken the pipelines between conservative local politicians and LDP Diet members and have serious consequences for LDP performance in future national elections Findings In 1951, m percent of the eligible voters cast their ballots during local assembly elections; i number dropped to only 54 percent. The national parties always played a major role in the Tokyo city parliaments' assemblies, with independents only gaining around 4% of the vote in 1979. The national parties always played a major role in the Tokyo city parliaments' assemblies, with independents only gaining around 4% of the vote in 1979 Their share grew only slightly to 6% in 1990, but has increased significantly since to 14% in 2006 Conclusion : How is Japan 's Local Dem Japan's local democracy has be reasons lie behind this process: First, decentralization, process, strengthens local political actors. For the societal transformations and the political gain in local developments such as a declining birth rate and popul increasingly relies on localities and private actors to prov delivered by national-level state actors. It appears that the improvement in local autonomy has increased participation in local elections. It may be too early to pass judgement to the outcome of the reform, and we cannot predict whether Japan s political system moves from a strong central state towards a dual power structure with the national and the local level each performing their own tasks and roles. As long as budgetary streamlining is the major driving force behind the reforms, local de autonomy remain secondary goals of the reform process and are not likely to b realized despite the improvement in law regulations over the past decade
Os resultados mostram que tanto o LSD (10-20 mcg) quanto opsilocibina(<1-3 mg) têm efeitos sutis (positivos) nos processos cognitivos (percepção do tempo, pensamento convergente e divergente) e nas regiões cerebrais envolvidas nos processos afetivos
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