A principal reason terrorism is effective at the societal level is that it draws together two key elements known to inflate risk estimates; ‘dread risk’, which involves threats seen as catastrophic, uncontrollable and arbitrary in their impacts, and the ‘unknown risk’ of hazards that
may not be observable or where the mechanism of injury is unfamiliar [3
National surveys after the September 11 attacks showed that around half of the U.S. adult population felt that they or their family were at personal risk of harm in a terrorist attack
as it plays a key role in moti- vating individuals to engage in appropriate protective behaviours, including terrorism-related responses
functional impacts (the so-called ‘white male effect’), meta-analyses show that middle age, female gender and ethnic minority status are factors associated with greater impacts following both natural disasters and terrorist inci- dents
Australian research in 2007 identified high levels of concern and changes in living particularly among those of ethnic minority status
ommenting on Canadian research, Lee et al  argue that information about the way individuals perceive and respond to such threats, prior to their occurrence, can be used in the develop- ment of strategies aimed at preparing for terrorism
he aim of this study is to use pooled data from surveys conducted in 2007 and 2010 to determine socio-demographic and health factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time.
Threat perception and response intentions were mea- sured on a five-point Likert scale from 1 (’not at all’) to 5 (’extremely’).
In relation to the demographic variables, Australians with no formal educational qualifications were
ignificantly more likely (AOR = 2.25, p < 0.001) to report that they perceived a terrorist attack as being very/extremely likely to occur, compared to those with university level qualifications; as were middle aged respondents (45-54 years) compared to young people (16-24 years) (AOR = 2.89, p < 0.001)
spoke a language other than English at home (LOTE) were significantly less likely to report a terrorist attack as being very/extremely likely to occur
People living in urban areas were significantly more likely to be very/extremely concerned that they or their family would be directly affected in the event of a terrorist attack
Austra- lians who spoke a language other than English at home were significantly more likely to report having made changes in the way they lived due to the possibi- lity of terrorism
Those without formal educational qualifications were significantly more likely to report high willingness to evacuate public facilities
overage of these incidents has maintained terrorism as a ‘front of mind’ threat within the Australian population, possibly keeping the perceived likelihood of an incident relatively steady during this period
In terrorism affected coun- tries, culture, appearance and religion have been found to be strong predictors of terrorism-related distress and appear to reflect increased stigmatisation of these groups
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