Other Secondary Chords
vii° chords act as a good substitute for V7 because they have a similar, albeit weaker pull to the I chord.
A good trick to remember is that vii°/X chords always have a bass note that is a half-step below the target.
vii°/vi is just like a V7/vi chord, which we learned has scale degrees 3, #5, 7, and 2 but with the bass removed. vii°/vi thus contains scale degrees #5, 7, and 2, with the #5 in the bass sliding up nicely to the target vi chord.
The sound of the vii°/X chord can be very off-putting if not prepared and resolved correctly
one of the features that distinguishes popular music from classical music is the more prominent use of IV as a cadence chord.
Because of this, unlike in classical music, the IV chord can also act as a secondary chord to establish a temporary home base.
Secondary chords that function as the “four of” almost exclusively use IV as the target (i.e., they are acting as the “four of four”). In the key of C major, F is the IV chord. The IV chord in F major is a B♭, so IV/IV in C major is B♭. As with all the other secondary chords we’ve learned, IV/IV typically resolves to its target, the IV in this case.
IV/IV in the key of C major is a B♭ that in some contexts might be called a ♭VII chord.
It turns out that ♭VII (or IV/IV) has a strong relationship with what is known as the mixolydian mode.
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