The term complex trauma was originally developed byHerman (1992 ), who observed that victims of prolonged andrepeated trauma, such as child sexual and physical abuse anddomestic violence exposure, presented to treatment differentlythan those with more acute trauma histories, with symptomssurpassing PTSD
The experience of repeated and extended trauma is relative-ly common among trauma-exposed children; however, muchof the prior research literature has focused on single types oftrauma.
Complex trauma has been defined aschronic, interpersonal trauma that occurs early in life (Briereand Spinazzola2005 ; Pelcovitz et al.1997 ;Rothetal.1997 ;Spinazzola et al.2005
self-examination of one’s experience, particularly one’semo-tional state, is a luxury that may not be afforded to thesechildren (Cook et al.2005
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