Before carbon dioxide gas can be stored, it must be captured and stripped of most associated substances. This is not a new technology, as CO2 is routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes. The captured CO2 is then stored in compressed form and transported to the place of sequestration in tanks, pipelines or ships
bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS)
Capturing carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere (DACCS) or from the combustion or fermentation of biogenic carbon (BECCS) has the potential to deliver negative emissions (carbon removals). The captured carbon is then either stored underground or used for the production of synthetic materials (fuels, chemicals, building materials).
The utilisation of carbon dioxide in production processes refers to technologies and procedures, which use CO2 as a feedstock rather than releasing it to the atmosphere, e.g. by directly using CO2 in soft drinks or greenhouses, using it as a working fluid or solvent such as for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), or using CO2 as a feedstock and converting it into value-added products such as polymers, building materials, chemicals and synthetic fuels. The latter family of novel technologies using CO2 as a feedstock may contribute to the circular economy and the climate mitigation objectives.
There are four basic options for transporting CO2: pipeline transport, waterborne transport, rail transport, and road transport.
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