Emotion regulation refers to shaping which emotions one has, when one has them, and how one experiences or expresses these emo- tions
The first core feature of emotion regula- tion is the activation of a goal to modify the emotion-generative process
his goal may be activated
intrinsic emotion regulation
extrin- sic emotion regulation
engagement of the processes that are responsible for altering the emotion trajectory
impact on emotion dynamics (Thompson, 1990), or the latency, rise time, magnitude, duration, and offset of responses in experiential, behavioral, or physiologi- cal domains.
The process model of emotion regulation builds on the modal model, and treats each step in the emotion-generative process that is described in the modal model as a potential target for regulation
(1) emotion regu- lation, (2) coping, and (3) mood regulation
situation selection. This type of emotion regulation involves taking actions that make it more (or less) likely that one will end up in a situation that one expects will give rise to desirable (or undesirable) emotions
Situation modification refers to directly modifying a situation so as to alter its emo- tional impact. When one’s parents visit at college, situation modification may take the form of hiding piles of dirty laundry or questionable artwork.
One of the most common forms of attentional deployment is distraction, which focuses attention on other aspects of the situ- ation or moves attention away from the situ- ation altogether
Cognitive change refers to modifying how one appraises a situation so as to alter its emotional significance, either by chang- ing how one thinks about the situation or about one’s capacity to manage the demands it poses.
response modulation, occurs late in the emotion-generative process, after response tendencies have already been initi- ated, and refers to directly influencing expe- riential, behavioral, or physiological com- ponents of the emotional response.
Affectively, experimental studies have shown that suppression leads to decreased positive but not negative emotion experi- ence
Cognitively, experimental studies have shown that suppression leads to worse mem- ory
Socially, experimental studies have reported that suppression leads to less lik- ing from social interaction partners, and to an increase in partners’ blood pressure lev- el
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