As of 2016, about 22 million people in the United States need treatment for an addiction to alcohol, nicotine, or other drugs. Only about 10%, or a little over two million, receive any form of treatment, and those that do generally do not receive evidence-based care.
According to Edward Khantzian’s self-medication hypothesis (SMH), a person may choose to medicate by using a drug as an “ego solvent,” which acts on parts of the self that are cut off from consciousness by defense mechanisms
radual incorporation of the drug effects and the need to sustain these effects into the defensive structure-building activity of the ego itself.
(1) drugs of abuse produce a relief from psychological suffering and (2) the individual’s preference for a particular drug is based on its psychopharmacological properties
avid Duncan proposed a self-medication model that focuses on behavioral factors. Duncan described the nature of positive reinforcement (e.g., the “high feeling” or approval from peers), negative reinforcement (e.g. reduction of negative affect), and avoidance of withdrawal symptoms, all of which are seen in those who develop problematic drug use, but are not all found in all recreational drug user
drug dependence was not maintained by positive reinforcement, but rather by negative reinforcement
. A crucial determinant of whether a drug user develops drug abuse is the presence or absence of negative reinforcement, which is experienced by problematic users, but not by recreational users. According to Duncan, drug dependence is an avoidance behavior, where an individual finds a drug that produces a temporary escape from a problem, and taking the drug is reinforced as an operant behavi
Research has consistently shown strong associations between affective disorders and substance use disorders. Specifically, people with mood disorders are at increased risk of substance use disorders.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are various forms of maltreatment and household dysfunction experienced in childhood. A study of 900 court cases involving children who experienced abuse found that a vast amount of them went on to suffer from some form of addiction in their adolescence or adult life.
nternationally, the United States and Eastern Europe contain the countries with the highest substance abuse disorder occurrence (5%-6%). Africa, Asia, and the Middle East contain countries with the lowest worldwide occurrence (1%-2%).
all, Whites were the demographic with the largest admission rate (83%), while Alaskan Native, American Indian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations had the lowest admissions (1.8%
One-third of inpatient hospital costs and 20% of all deaths in the United States every year are the result of untreated addictions and risky substance use.
his is classified when an individual has at least four of the following symptoms in a 12-month period: Needs to gamble with increasing amounts of money in order to achieve the desired excitement Is restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop gambling Has made repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling Is often preoccupied with gambling (e.g., having persistent thoughts of reliving past gambling experiences, handicapping or planning the next venture, thinking of ways to get money with which to gamble) Often gambles when feeling distressed (e.g., helpless, guilty, anxious, depressed) After losing money gambling, often returns another day to get even (“chasing” one’s losses) Lies to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, education, or career opportunity because of gambling Relies on others to provide money to relieve desperate financial situations caused by gambling
aming disorder is defined as the problematic, compulsive use of video games that results in significant impairment to an individual’s ability to function in various life domains over a prolonged period of time.
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