By using General Purpose SSD gp3 storage volumes, you can customize storage performance independently of storage capacity. Storage performance is the combination of I/O operations per second (IOPS) and how fast the storage volume can perform reads and writes (storage throughput). On gp3 storage volumes, Amazon RDS provides a baseline storage performance of 3000 IOPS and 125 MiBps.
For every RDS DB engine except RDS for SQL Server, when the storage size for gp3 volumes reaches a certain threshold, the baseline storage performance increases to 12,000 IOPS and 500 MiBps. This is because of volume striping, where the storage uses four logical volumes instead of one.
For every DB engine except RDS for SQL Server, you can provision additional IOPS and storage throughput when storage size is at or above the threshold value.
The following list briefly describes the three storage types: General Purpose SSD – General Purpose SSD volumes offer cost-effective storage that is ideal for a broad range of workloads running on medium-sized DB instances. General Purpose storage is best suited for development and testing environments. For more information about General Purpose SSD storage, including the storage size ranges, see General Purpose SSD storage. Provisioned IOPS SSD – Provisioned IOPS storage is designed to meet the needs of I/O-intensive workloads, particularly database workloads, that require low I/O latency and consistent I/O throughput. Provisioned IOPS storage is best suited for production environments. For more information about Provisioned IOPS storage, including the storage size ranges, see Provisioned IOPS SSD storage. Magnetic – Amazon RDS also supports magnetic storage for backward compatibility. We recommend that you use General Purpose SSD or Provisioned IOPS SSD for any new storage needs. The maximum amount of storage allowed for DB instances on magnetic storage is less than that of the other storage types. For more information, see Magnetic storage.
MariaDB, MySQL, Oracle, and PostgreSQL database instances: 20 GiB–64 TiB
When your applications don't need high storage performance, you can use General Purpose SSD gp2 storage. Baseline I/O performance for gp2 storage is 3 IOPS for each GiB, with a minimum of 100 IOPS. This relationship means that larger volumes have better performance. For example, baseline performance for a 100-GiB volume is 300 IOPS. Baseline performance for a 1-TiB volume is 3,000 IOPS. Maximum baseline performance for a gp2 volume (5.34 TiB and greater) is 16,000 IOPS.
Volumes below 1 TiB in size also have the ability to burst to 3,000 IOPS for extended periods of time. Instance I/O credit balance determines burst performance
Storage performance values for gp3 volumes on RDS have the following constraints: The maximum ratio of storage throughput to IOPS is 0.25 for all supported DB engines. The minimum ratio of IOPS to allocated storage (in GiB) is 0.5 on RDS for SQL Server. There is no minimum ratio for the other supported DB engines. The maximum ratio of IOPS to allocated storage is 500 for all supported DB engines. If you're using storage autoscaling, the same ratios between IOPS and maximum storage threshold (in GiB) also apply. For more information on storage autoscaling, see Managing capacity automatically with Amazon RDS storage autoscaling.
DB instances for Amazon RDS for MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server use Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes for database and log storage
You can create SQL Server RDS DB instances with up to 16 TiB of storage.
When you modify an instance’s storage so that it goes from one volume to four volumes, or when you modify an instance using magnetic storage, Amazon RDS does not use the Elastic Volumes feature. Instead, Amazon RDS provisions new volumes and transparently moves the data from the old volume to the new volumes. This operation consumes a significant amount of IOPS and throughput of both the old and new volumes. Depending on the size of the volume and the amount of database workload present during the modification, this operation can consume a high amount of IOPS, significantly increase IO latency, and take several hours to complete, while the RDS instance remains in the Modifying state.
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