Middle-tier routing. In addition to sharding the data tier, you can shard the web tier and application tier, distributing the shards of those middle tiers to service a particular set of database shards, creating a pattern known as a swim lane. A smart router can route client requests based on specific sharding keys to the appropriate swim lane, which in turn establishes connections on its subset of shards.
database sharding, in which they distribute segments of a data set—a shard—across lots of databases on lots of different computers.
Sharding uses a shared-nothing architecture in which shards share no hardware or software. All of the shards together make up a single logical database, called a sharded database
From the perspective of the application, a sharded database looks like a single database
Oracle Sharding is a feature of Oracle Database that lets you automatically distribute and replicate data across a pool of Oracle databases that share no hardware or software
strict data consistency, complex joins, ACID transaction properties, distributed transactions, relational data store, security, encryption, robust performance optimizer, backup and recovery, and patching with Oracle Database
Oracle innovations and enterprise-level features, including Advanced Security, Automatic Storage Management (ASM), Advanced Compression, partitioning, high-performance storage engine, SMP scalability, Oracle RAC, Exadata, in-memory columnar, online redefinition, JSON document store, and so on
Programmatic interfaces, such as Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), Oracle Call Interface (OCI), Universal Connection Pool (UCP)
Oracle Sharding provides the best features and capabilities of mature RDBMS and NoSQL databases
horizontal partitioning of data
horizontal partitioning of data across multiple independent physical databases
A sharded table is partitioned across all shards of the sharded database. Table partitions on each shard are not different from partitions that could be used in an Oracle database that is not sharded.
Oracle Sharding automatically distributes the partitions across shards when you execute the CREATE SHARDED TABLE statement, and the distribution of partitions is transparent to applications
Oracle Sharding provides linear scalability, complete fault isolation, and global data distribution
Oracle Sharding supports scaling up to 1000 shards
Single points of failure are eliminated because shards do not share resources such as software
Shards are protected by Oracle MAA best practice solutions, such as Oracle Data Guard and Oracle RAC.
Geographical Distribution of Data
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