Sex refers to factors attributable to an individual’s reproductive organs and XX or XY chromosomal complement. Gender is a result of reproductive organs as well as an individual’s self-representation and includes the psychological, behavioral, and social consequences of the individual’s perceived gender.
clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning.
developmental and life span trajectories
The organization of chapters of DSM-5 after the neurodevelopmental disorders is based on groups of internalizing disorders
neurocognitive disorders, and other disorders
It is hoped that this organization will encourage further study of underlying pathophysiological processes that give rise to diagnostic comorbidity and symptom heterogeneity.
begins with diagnoses thought to reflect developmental processes that manifest early in life
followed by diagnoses that more commonly manifest in adolescence and young adulthood
and ends with diagnoses relevant to adulthood and later life
significant distress or disability in social, occupational, or other important activities
An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder.
Socially deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above
mental disorder should have clinical utility
help clinicians to determine prognosis, treatment plans, and potential treatment outcomes for their patient
Need for treatment is a complex clinical decision that takes into consideration symptom severity, symptom salience
the individual’s distress
associated with the symptom(s)
disability related to the individual’s symptoms, risks and benefits of available treatments, and other factors
The fact that some individuals do not show all symptoms indicative of a diagnosis should not be used to justify limiting their access to appropriate care.
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