Individuals of all ages who experience stress, anxiety, and depression tend to find it more difficult to fall asleep, and when they do, sleep tends to be light and includes more REM sleep and less deep sleep.
increased frequency of awakenings may prevent transitions to the deeper stages of sleep.
Like many other sleep disruptions, pain and discomfort tend to limit the depth of sleep and allow only brief episodes of sleep between awakenings.
caffeine generally decreases the quantity of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep and tends to increase the number of awakenings. The duration of its effect depends on the amount of caffeine ingested, the amount of time before sleep that the person ingests the caffeine, the individual’s tolerance level, the degree of ongoing sleep debt, and the phase of the individual’s internal clock.
although alcohol can help a person fall asleep more quickly, the quality of that individual's sleep under the influence of alcohol will be compromised.
Beta blockers, which are used to treat high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, glaucoma, and migraines, often cause decreases in the amount of REM and slow-wave sleep, and are also associated with increased daytime sleepiness.
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