the inherent variability of wind and solar PV power generation raises challenges for a wide range of stakeholders including system operators and regulators.
As part of the Clean Energy Transitions Program the IEA has been collaborating with India on system integration of renewables since 2018. In 2018 the IEA delivered a national workshop in Delhi with NITI Aayog and the Asian Development Bank, and four regional workshops in Delhi, Chennai, Pune, and Kolkata. Since 2019 the IEA, with the sponsorship of the British High Commission and in partnership with NITI Aayog, has been organizing a series of state-level Power System Transformation Workshops. The objective of the workshops is to help inform the state governments’ actions for system integration of solar PV and wind. In 2020 two workshops were held focusing on Maharashtra (February) and Gujarat (October). The third workshop focused on Karnataka on 19 January 2021
he most significant renewables integration challenges are in Karnataka (where solar and wind account for around 30% of annual electricity generation), Rajasthan (20%), Tamil Nadu (19%) and Gujarat (16%) (Figure 2).
Instead of focusing on RE in the broad sense of the word, the following IEA analysis and this report focusses on wind and solar, referred to as variable renewable energy (VRE) because the variability in the system is one of the key drivers of renewables integration challenges. The report also takes into account the impact of other renewables, namely hydro and bio-energy, noting that these normally impact system integration of renewables positively, as they often are dispatchable forms of power generation
Flexibility can therefore refer to the capability to change power supply or demand of the system as a whole or a particular unit. Flexibility can be provided at different time scales (ramping, startup, demand response etc) highlighted in the table below
Greater penetration of solar energy would place greater demand for flexibility with even faster response time. Later in Phase 4, more focus on ultra-short term flexibility capabilities will be required in order to provide flexibility within seconds, and additional focus on flexibility within the days of the week. Then in Phase 5 and 6, more focus can shift towards flexibility over months to years often referred to as seasonal flexibilit
These power system flexibility enablers can be generation, grid, storage assets, demand-side management and sector coupling. The following chapters of the report address the flexibility enablers that are most relevant for the state of Gujarat, given their current level of VRE deployment
While solar and wind can meet over 32% of the daily generation today (maximum recorded was on 15th July 2019 during 2019-20), this number is expected to increase to 55% by 2022 and to almost 90% by 2030. This means that, by 2030, Gujarat’s power system is expected to experience challenges that have not been experienced by any Indian state today.
n line with the identified important topics, presentations were made by GERC, GUVNL, GETCO, Gujarat SLDC, GSECL (Genco), PGVCL (DISCOM), NITI Aayog, GERMI, Center for Energy Regulation, ARUP, Ampacimon, World Bank, India Smart Grid Forum and GIZ.
Firstly, the workshop participants pointed to regulators as the key institutions for transition towards more renewables, followed by policymakers, the private sector, DISCOMs, the system operator – SLDC and GETCO.
The most important challenges as seen by Gujarat stakeholders listed in the order of priority are the forecast of solar and wind, transmission challenges, technical challenges such as inertia, system strength, frequency and voltage issues, demand forecast, future curtailment of solar and wind and distributed energy resources
able 3. Gujarat solar and wind integration challenges, Source: IEA analysi
able 4. Gujarat solar and wind integration solutions, Source: IEA a
In the longer-term Gujarat state targets 65 GW for solar and wind combined by 2030, which includes 20 GW of capacity in a hybrid solar and wind park designed for exports to other states.
Gujarat is one of the few states in India with financially stable DISCOMs with timely payments and excellent land availability driven by stable long term policy directions: (1) Land Allocation Policy for Wind, Solar and Hybrid Parks 2019, (2) Policy for Development of Small Scale Distributed Solar Projects 2019, and (3) Policy for allocating land, for development of Solar Projects in the vicinity of existing GETCO substations.
SLDC anticipates that 5000MW demand variation and 3500MW wind variation in a day will be common by 2030. To meet this variation and minimize start/stop of thermal plants, 4000MW of reserves can be required
SLDC noted that additional flexibility will have to come from both the physical system and the institutional framework, such as market dispatch decisions closer to real time and better use of forecasting
will enable real time review and more accurate forecasting of solar and wind
The ongoing development of the Renewable Energy Management Center (Figure 6)
Renewable Energy Management Centre: Advance Forecasting Mechanism Support to System Operation being developed in Gujarat
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