The poorer reader does not seem less likely to use context to facilitate word recognition (when the con-text is adequately understood, a point to which I will return below).
basic interactive idea that recognition takes place via the simultaneous amalgamation of information from many different knowledge sources, we added what was termed the compensatory assumption (see Stanovich, 1980).
assumption that deficiencies at any level in the processing hierarchy can be compensated for by a greater use of information from other levels, and that this compensation takes place irrespective of the level of the deficient process
poorer reader often has subtle language problems that are independent of decoding abilit
ess-skilled readers have less effi-cient text comprehension strategies, are less adept at com-prehension monitoring, and approach text more passively
less efficient text scanning strategies (DiVesta, Hayward, & Orlando, 1979; Garner & Reis, 1981), less sensitivity to text struc-ture (Meyer, Brandt, &c Bluth, 1980; Pearson & Camperell, 1981; Smiley, Oakley, Worthen, Campione, & Brown, 1977), and are less likely to elaborate the encoding of text (Levin, 1973; Merrill, Sperber, & McCauley, 1981; Pearson & Camperell, 1981).
A particularly impressive longitudinal training study of four-year-old children who were followed up four years later was recently published by Bradley and Bryant (1983). This study provides strong evidence for a causal connection between phonological
awareness and reading acquisition.
eye movement patterning and processes of visual feature extraction are not critical loci of indi-vidual differences in reading ability (Carr, 1981; Rayner, 1978; Stanovich, 1982a; Vellutino, 1979). These processes appear to account for very little of the variance in reading skill.
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