Legal standing or locus standi is the "right of appearance in a court of justice on a given question." To possess legal standing, parties must show "a personal and substantial interest in the case such that [they have] sustained or will sustain direct injury as a result of the governmental act that is being challenged." The requirement of direct injury guarantees that the party who brings suit has such personal stake in the outcome of the controversy and, in effect, assures "that concrete adverseness which sharpens the presentation of issues upon which the court depends for illumination of difficult constitutional questions."
The doctrine of hierarchy of courts ensures judicial efficiency at all levels of courts. It enables courts at each level to act in keeping with their peculiar competencies. This is so, even as this Court has original and concurrent jurisdiction with the regional trial courts and the Court of Appeals over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas corpus. In Diocese of Bacolod v. Commission on Elections:
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