the Application layer that contains the mechanisms that do not fit in neither the Presentation nor the Session layer. The OSI Application layer was itself further divided into several generic service elements.
As you read these sections, consider the following questions: Which came first, the OSI model or the TCP/IP model? Which layers in the OSI
The Session layer contains the protocols and mechanisms that are necessary to organize and to synchronize the dialogue and to manage the data exchange of presentation layer entities.
The Presentation layer was designed to cope with the different ways of representing information on computers.
he TCP/IP reference places the Presentation and the Session layers implicitly in the Application layer.
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