Gender and race stereotypes are also perpetuated by educators whose evaluation of students is often subconsciously colored by preconceived expectations, for example that males are more gifted in mathematics and females in language arts (Collins, Joseph and Ford, 2019).
It has been found that men and women who are more aware of gender stereotypes (higher gender stigma consciousness) experience higher levels of IP, which may lead to differences in career choice, especially for women (Cokley et al., 2015).
Nelson et al. (2019) found that fear of failure is a significant contributor to university students’ decision not to major in a STEM discipline. As fear of failure grows in STEM students, their self-efficacy disintegrates, which causes them to doubt their own abilities in relation to STEM tasks
The PFAI is based on the cognitive—motivational—relational theory and asserts that for fear of failure to present itself two processes must occur: (1) the individual must feel that failure is possible and (2) the individual must feel that failure will lead to negative consequences
As researchers we must always find a balance between our responsibility to inform society and individuals’ right to privacy (Vetenskapsrådet, 2017). There are four main ethical considerations that were kept in mind as the study was conducted: participants rights to be informed, consensual participation, confidentiality, and how data is utilized (Vetenskapsrådet, 2011).
Fear of failure was significantly higher in female students than in male students in the current study.
For example, educators tend to believe that males are better in mathematics and females in language arts, and this could affect the way they evaluate their performance (Collins, Joseph and Ford, 2019)
Research has shown also that parents are more likely to attribute a male child’s competence in mathematics to natural talent and a female child’s to effort (King and Cooley, 1995)
decision process for upper secondary school program itself is a cause for a lot of anxiety
s students were in the midst of taking oral exams for the standardized national tests, were in the middle of the COVID epidemic and were often in the process of picking which school and program to apply to for upper secondary school
difficult to apply to upper secondary school right now during the Corona pandemic.
Conroy, Metzler and Hofer (2003) warned against administering the PFAI around the time of performance evaluations, as during these periods “the possibility of failing is especially salient.”
Ethnicity could also play a role. Much of the theory surrounding female underrepresentation in STEM is based on research on white girls and women (Collins, Joseph and Ford, 2019).
order to increase recruitment in STEM, focus should lie on activities that spark interest, and, when possible, less focus should be put on grades and assessments
Glasp is a social web highlighter that people can highlight and organize quotes and thoughts from the web, and access other like-minded people’s learning.