Much of the pain women feel during labor results from muscles opening the cervix from 0 to 10 cm
initial sign of labor is frequently a contraction
myometrium layer, contract in sequence to force the fetus downward to the cervix.
contractions become more regular (usually 5–20 minutes apart) and stronger.
longest and least intense
hen contractions become more severe and frequent, labor has moved to the active phase.
cervix dilates from 4 cm to 7 cm
ontractions can last up to 1 minute with 3–5 minutes between them
transition phase, the final phase, is often the shortest but most intense
last between 30 minutes and 2 hours, which is quicker than the 3–5 hours of active labo
ervix completes its transformation and is completely dilated to 10 cm during this time
contractions are often 60–90 seconds in length and occur less than 2 minutes apart.
baby will turn to face the mother’s spine and move further downward, so that it’s head will “crown” in the vaginal
time when many women feel the urge to push
this stage, with all three phases, lasts 12–14 hours for first-time births.
Subsequent deliveries usually see a considerable decrease in the first stage.
second stage of labor is delivery
intense abdominal pressure and for many, the desire to push or bear down
ontractions in abdomen muscles have joined the uterine contraction
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