The fully modern conception of revolution as involving a break from the past—an abrupt, humanly-made overturning rather than a natural overturning
his conception of revolution as overturning was compatible with a cyclical view of history as a continuous process.
philosophers of science until the 1960s—the logical empiricists and the Popperians—rejected innovation as a legitimate topic, even though it is the primary intellectual driver of scientific change and producer of the wealth of skilled knowledge that results.
Although talk of revolution is often exaggerated, most analysts agree that there have been transformative scientific developments of various kinds, whether Kuhnian or not.
And since revolution is typically driven by new results, or by a conceptual-cum-social reorganization of old ones, often highly unexpected, we also confront the hard problem of understanding creative innovation.
This conception of revolution as overturning was compatible with a cyclical view of history as a continuous process.
In this sense, a revolution is a successful revolt,
perhaps originated in the Italian Renaissance, gained strength during the Protestant Reformation and the two later English revolutions,
and became practically dogma among the champions of the scientific Enlightenment
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