because understandable speech leads to increased annoyance and distraction
negative impact on the academic performance and achievement of primary school students. Irrelevant speech causes even more disturbance than that caused by traffic noise
Experimental sounds are frequently used and continuous. · Experimental articles have at least one cognitive test. · Experimental results have 95 % confidence intervals, or there is sufficient data provided to calculate and verify the experimental results.
he presence of background speech adversely affects cognitive performance and subjective distraction.
Background speech, especially intelligible speech, is more detrimental to memory.
sound settings mainly resorted to laboratory audio and partially used real environmental sound simulations.
students performed the worst in classroom babble
including classroom babble, babble plus environmental noise, babble and environmental
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