have failed to save a sufficiently high proportion of their resource revenues and failed to make high- return investments to support diversification of their economies.
volatile commodity prices
how to trans- form subsoil assets into a portfolio of other assets—human capital, domestic physical capital (both private and public), and perhaps also foreign financial assets—that yield a continuing flow of income to citizens
a measure of education spending to reflect investment in human capital and subtract the depreciation of physical and human capital, the use of natural resources, and the deterioration in environmental quality (mainly arising from CO 2 and fine-particle pollution)
how much countries should save from their resource rents and how such savings should be invested.
constrain spending during boom times and transfer revenue into a stabilization fund
Volatility is a particular problem
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