1525 Luther was isolated from various other reformers in a controversy over the meaning of the Eucharist
Meanwhile, on his journey back to Wittenberg, Luther was “kidnapped” by soldiers of Frederick and taken secretly to Wartburg Castle
the discussions failed over his refusal to repudiate a single sentence from the 41 cited in the papal bull
declared Luther and his followers (some of whom were identified by name) to be political outlaws, and ordered his writings to be burned
most thought he was dead
began work on what proved to be one of his foremost achievements—the translation of the New Testament into the German vernacular
Attempts to carry out the Edict of Worms were largely unsuccessful
the movement for reform was too strong.
After the Edict of Worms, however, the cause of reform, of whatever sort, became a legal and political struggle rather than a theological one
crucial decisions were now made in the halls of government
by 1523 various other reformers, including Thomas Müntzer, Huldrych Zwingli, and Martin Bucer, had arisen to challenge Luther’s primacy of place and to put forward a more radical vision of reform
summer of 1524, large numbers of peasants in southwestern Germany staged a series of uprisings that were partly inspired by Luther’s reform proposals
though they also addressed long-standing economic and political grievances
the Peasants’ War, had spread to much of central Germany
manifesto titled “The Twelve Articles of the Peasants”;
should be judged by the Word of God, a notion derived directly from Luther’s teaching that the Bible is the sole guide in matters of morality and belief
Zwingli argued that these words had to be understood symbolically
Luther argued strenuously for a literal interpretation
Catholic territories were determined to suppress the new Lutheran heresy, if necessary by force.
establishing a united Protestant political (and military) front
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