Mandela played an important role in launching a campaign of defiance against South Africa’s pass laws, which required nonwhites to carry documents (known as passes, pass books, or reference books) authorizing their presence in areas that the government deemed “restricted” (i.e., generally reserved for the white population).
trying to build support for nonviolent means of protest against the discriminatory laws. In 1955 he was involved in drafting the Freedom Charter, a document calling for nonracial social democracy in South Africa.
In 1944 he joined the African National Congress (ANC), a Black-liberation group, and became a leader of its Youth League
through which he helped revitalize the organization and oppose the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party.
Early life and work
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