the “problem of stability”
A well-ordered society is one that “endures over time,” which entails that it is stabilized by its conception of justice
It is introduced, in the Restatement, in order to respond to certain misunderstandings
The argument does not rest
on a great aversion to uncertainty viewed as a psychological attitude. That would be a very weak argument. Rather, the appropriate reasons rest on such ideas as publicity and reciprocity.
Stability, publicity, and reciprocity are the key ideas
Restricted utility adopts the first principle of equal liberty and its priority
replaces the difference principle with (again, average) utilitarianism
. In this first comparison, the three conditions for using the maximin principle of choice are all (to a degree) present: (a) there is significant uncertainty about the probability of outcomes under both conceptions, (b) under one of the conceptions there is a highly satisfactory guaranteeable level, and (c) under the other there is no satisfactory guaranteeable level.
maximin criterion of decision under uncertainty: choose the alternative that has the best outcome in its worst case
pits justice as fairness against what he calls a “mixed conception” or, more precisely, the “principle of restricted utility” (JF 120; cf. TJ 107)
takes on all of justice as fairness except the difference principle
restricted utility admits the first principle of equal liberty, and the principle of fair equal opportunity
rejects the difference principle and replaces it with the principle of utility subject to a guaranteed social minimum
“restriction” in restricted utility is the priority of the principles
additional restriction of a social minimum
including its guarantee of the fair value of political liberty
the difference principle is no more acceptable as a general conception than is average utilitarianism
justice as fairness also recognizes the need for a social minimum, as Rawls concedes in his response to Rodney Peffer
two residual, lexically posterior principles of distribution: one is the difference principle, and the other is utilitarianism with a guaranteed social minimum set at a “fully satisfactory” leve
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