It is a special case of eco-evo dynamics that involves interactions with ecologically distinct groups of organisms.
The microbiome of the intestinal ecosystem is a community that resides within a host that also is part of its own community and ecosystem.
there is much potential for hierarchical eco-evo feedback loops between the eco-evo system of the microbiome and that of the host community
This implies that ecological, evolutionary, and eco-evo dynamics in microbiomes can impact ecological, evolutionary, and eco-evo dynamics at the level of the host population, community, and ecosystem they are embedded in and vice versa.
Figure 2Hierarchical feedback loops between eco-evolutionary (eco-evo) dynamics in the gut microbiome and in the host community.