Currently, there is no agreed international framework on space resource exploration, exploitation & utilisation
ensuring peace and security as well as preventing an arms race in outer space.
a UN policy brief, For All Humanity —The Future of Outer SpaceGovernance, released in May 2024.
international norms, rules and principles to address threats to space systems
a combination of binding and non-binding norms” to address emerging risks to outer space security, safety and sustainability
member states will agree on multilateral solutions for a better tomorrow and to strengthen global governanc
from 1957-2012. In 2013, there were 210 new launches, which increased to 600 in 2019 and 1,200 in 2020 and 2,470 in 202
e private sector
e United States, China, India and Japan are catching up, the brief noted.
Artemis mission, plans to land the first woman
Minerals on the Moon, asteroids and planets can be attractive for countries. Moon, for example, has rich deposits of helium-3, which is rare on Earth
asteroids contain abundant deposits of valuable metals, including platinum, nickel and cobalt.
A lack of coordination among the entities could impact countries with less space capacity. T
Objects as small as a chip of paint, travelling at more than 28,000 kilometres per hour, can cause significant damage to spacecraft,” the brief read.
consider, including jurisdiction, control, liability and responsibility for environmental pollution in space for present and future generations.
to prevent an armed conflict in outer space and the weaponisation of outer space.
ing it. This would significantly increase the potential for space debris and the compromising of critical civilian infrastructure, disrupting communications, observation and navigation capabilities vital to the global supply chain. I
the UN recommended an effective framework for coordinating space situational awareness, space object manoeuvres and space objects and events.
In 1959, the United Nations established the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac
1963, countries agreed to prohibit testing nuclear weapons in outer space; in 1977