kingdom in Iberia
In the early 7th century, a new religious force emerged in the Middle East, known as Islam. Its followers quickly expanded the Arab Muslim empire, which soon reached the borders of Visigothic Spain.
at the Battle of Guadalete, the Visigoths were defeated by the invaders and Iberia became an Islamic kingdom instead of Christian.
After the defeat of the Visigoths, the Arabs took control of Spain and ruled it for centuries.
reconquest of Spain began in AD 718
Christian king Pelagius defeated the Muslim army at the Battle of Covadonga.
victory encouraged successive Christian rulers to launch similar attacks on the Muslim forces in the hope of recapturing all of Spain for the Christian religion.
reconquest continued throughout the centuries as different Christian kingdoms slowly wrested control of territory from Muslim rule.
After a series of devastated defeats at the hands of Christian armies, the Muslim rulers in the south sought military support from a new Muslim people group called the Almoravids.
The Almoravids, landed in Spain in 1086 and swiftly overran the Christian strongholds that had been recently conquered.
hey are ultimately stopped on the east coast by the famous Christian military hero, El Cid, who captured the city of Valencia in 1094.
city of Saragossa fell to the Christians in 1118
The advance of the Christian kingdoms gradually weakened the Almoravids and, in 1147,
The reconquest of Spain was finally completed in 1492 when the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, conquered the last Muslim stronghold of Granada.
Castile and Aragon.
combined the two most powerful Christian kingdoms:
Muslims were no longer allowed to practice their religion openly and were forced to convert to Christianity or leave Spain.
people in their kingdom were a mix of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
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