Better understanding of cross-reactive immunity in the human population is also important for the development of universal vaccine strategies against influenza virus that are designed to boost pre-existing antibodies to protective levels.
Then, we compared antibody responses after infection of humans with influenza virus H1N1 or H3N2 and found markedly broad responses and cogent evidence for 'original antigenic sin'
However, they usually induce strain-specific immune responses to the three to four strains included in the vaccine formulatio
We found that the cross-reactivity profiles depended on the pre-exposure history and were influenced by the viral strains first encountered during childhood.
showed high reactivity to very recent isolates of these two subtypes, with limited cross-reactivity
These findings provide evidence for the phenomenon in which the first HA subtype to which a person is exposed leaves an immunological imprint that will substantially affect the antibody cross-reactome that this person develops
high titers of cross-reactive antibodies to group 1 HA in the experienced population might contribute to protection against new pandemic viruses that express group 1 HAs
prevalence and breadth of the antibody cross-reactome of the general human population varied largely and depended on the individual history of exposure to influenza viruses. T
universal vaccines that target the HA head, stalk or NA might be successful in boosting these antibody levels to protective titers.
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