the skeleton is the third most common site of disease after lung and liver.
Carcinoma is the most common cause of secondary bone cancer
breast, lung, and prostate
Prostate cancer posed the highest risk for bone metastases (18% to 29%) followed by lung, renal, or breast cancer.
mostly through the hematogenous spread
through the venous system is the predominant process of spinal metastasis
lung and breast cancers
due to the venous drainage of the breast through the azygos vein
Prostate cancer usually metastasizes to the lumbar-sacral spine and pelvis because it drains through the pelvic plexus in the lumbar region.
osteoblastic (prostate cancer) and osteolytic (breast, lung, renal cancers) or mixed (breast cancer)
often present with progressive pain or other skeletal-related events (SRE).
unrelated or nonspecific low energy injury
pain medication and the symptoms do not completely resolve
night pain, unintentional weight loss, pain with weight-bearing, or an enlarging mass in the area of concern
vertebra is the most common site affected, followed by the femur, pelvis, ribs, sternum, proximal humerus, and skull.
Pain associated with bone metastasis is a frequent symptom. It is typically gradual in onset and described as a dull, boring pain that is worse at night.
causing nerve root compression can present as radicular pain different from mechanical pain.
vertebra is the most common site of metastasis, a significant complication includes spinal cord compression
Metastatic spinal cord compression occurs either through pathological vertebral collapse or direct epidural extension
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