Diabetes mellitus is taken from the Greek word diabetes, meaning siphon - to pass through
Latin word mellitus meaning sweet.
Ancient Greek, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations discovered the sweet nature of urine in this condition,
Unfortunately, even today, diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the country and worldwide. In the US, it remains as the seventh leading cause of death.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, involving inappropriately elevated blood glucose levels
The main subtypes of DM are Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
T1DM presents in children or adolescents,
T2DM is thought to affect middle-aged and older adults
The pathogenesis for T1DM and T2DM is drastically different, and therefore each type has various etiologies, presentations, and treatments.
There is clear evidence suggesting that T2DM is has a stronger hereditary profile as compared to T1DM.
A patient with DM has the potential for hyperglycemia
maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), gestational diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and steroid-induced diabetes
secondary to an autoimmune process
destruction of beta cells in the pancreas
insulin is absent
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