The agent was a novel coronavirus and was given the name SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
new and rapidly progressive respiratory syndrome
had the ability for efficient person-to-person transmission
uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for entry into its host
through the virus's receptor-binding domain
The virus concentrates in the lungs and small bowel, which are areas with a high density of its receptors
fever or a history of fever along with one or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract illness
radiographic findings of pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or an autopsy finding of pneumonia or ARDS without an identifiable cause and no alternative explanation of the illness
there are two samples obtained from two different sites or two samples from one site obtained at two different times, showing the presence of a virus by an assay for viral RNA using reverse transcriptase PCR.
diagnostic workup should include complete blood count with differential, chest x-ray, pulse oximetry, blood cultures, Gram stain, and culture of sputum, Legionella, and Pneumococcal antigen testing as well as viral respiratory pathogen panels
done via PCR from samples obtained from at least two sites and as early in the illness as possible and then repeated five to seven days later if symptoms continue
Serum antibody titers by ELISA
low total lymphocytes, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.
Radiographic findings are similar to other causes of viral pneumonia
(CT) scanning showed additionally parenchymal abnormalities as well as ground-glass infiltrates, typically peripherally
shows patterns ranging from normal in appearance to peripheral infiltrates (typically in middle to lower lung fields) to diffuse interstitial infiltrates.
no specific treatment
supportive care is emphasized