the use of innovative, vanishing, and encrypted methods of private communication, as well as complex and untraceable funding arrangements in several cases, makes it impossible to establish the pre-ponderance of probability
unexplained suspicious trading patterns
mule accounts, complex entity structures, and encrypted communication
person or group of connected persons exhibiting an unexplained suspicious trading pattern -- repetitive abnormal gainful dealings in a security or a set of securities, around the presence of material non-public information -- would be deemed to be violating the securities laws, unless they are able to effectively rebut the said presumption
substantial change in risk taken
delivered abnormal profits or averted abnormal losses
With advancements in technology, new methods are being adopted by certain market participants to carry out fraudulent and unfair practices in markets
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