Women generally begin their careers closer to wage parity with men, but they lose ground as they age and progress through their work lives, a pattern that has remained consistent over time
Employed mothers earn about the same as similarly educated women without children at home; both groups earn less than fathers
Progress in closing the gender pay gap has slowed despite gains in women’s education
Because men and women tend to work in different types of jobs and industries, their earnings may respond differently to external pressures.
Higher education, a shift to higher-paying occupations and more labor market experience have helped women narrow the gender pay gap since 1982. But even as women have continued to outpace men in educational attainment, the pay gap has been stuck in a holding pattern since 2002,
As a result, the gender gap in workplace activity is greater among those who have children at home than among those who do not.
To some extent, the gender wage gap varies by race and ethnicity because of differences in education, experience, occupation and other factors that drive the gender wage gap for women overall. But researchers have uncovered new evidence of hiring discrimination against various racial and ethnic groups, along with discrimination against other groups, such as LGBTQ and disabled workers. Discrimination in hiring may feed into differences in earnings by shutting out workers from opportunities.
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