scientists have introduced thuringiensis toxin genes into plants. Such plants are resistant to attack by insect pests. Bt-cotton is one such example
Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents.
number of antibiotics are being produced from bacteria and fungi.
Antibiotics and Vaccination
Streptomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
In 1929, Alexander Fleming was working on a culture of disease-causing bacteria [Staphylococci].
he found the spores of a little green mould [Penicillium notatum] in one of his culture plates
From this the mould penicillin was prepared.
Antibiotics, however, are not effective against cold and flu as these are caused by viruses.
Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for smallpox in 1798
Microbes are also used for commercial and industrial production of certain chemicals like organic acids, alcohols and enzymes
Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels
Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum
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