The model discriminates between four levels of feedback: the task, the processing, the regulatory, and the self levels. Effective feedback at the task, process, and self-regulatory levels is interrelated. FT is more powerful when it results from faulty interpretations, not a lack of understanding. It is most effective when it aids in building cues and information regarding erroneous hypothesis and ideas and then leads to the development of more effective and efficient strategies for processing and understanding the material. Feedback at the process level is most beneficial when it helps students reject erroneous hypotheses and provides cues to directions for searching and strategizing. Such cues sensitize students to the competence or strategy information in a task or situation. Ideally, it moves from the task to the processes or understandings necessary to learn the task to regulation about continuing beyond the task to more challenging tasks and goals. This process results in higher confidence and greater investment of effort. This flow typically occurs as students gain greater fluency and mastery. Feedback that attends to self-regulation is powerful to the degree that it leads to further engagement with or investing further effort into the task, to enhanced self-efficacy, and to attributions that the feedback is deserved and earned. When feedback draws attention to the regulatory processes needed to engage with a task, learners' beliefs about the importance of effort and their conceptions of learning can be important moderators in the learning process.
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