that is, an event result-ing in the termination of reinforcement that has previously maintained a behavior
frustration was defined as a cause of extinction—
extinction burst, particularly when the extinction procedure has just begun
frustration occurs when anticipated reward is reduced, delayed, or removed completely
Hanratty etal. (1972) described frustration as the “withdrawal of an anticipated reinforcer
two requirements for an event to qualify as frustrating in the sense of the definition by Dollard etal. (1939): (1) Achieving the goal must be important or relevant to the subject and (2) achieving the goal must be perceived as a likely outcome by the subject
events that reduce the experience of self-efficacy
the closer a person is to achieving a goal, the more intense the effect of a frustra-tion will be on the aggressive inclinations of that person
matters how much the frustration actually interferes with the attainment of the desired outcome
the presence of aggression-facilitating cues is neither necessary nor sufficient for aggression to occur as a consequence of frustration in the self-determination theory framework
games or game-like scenarios provide an optimal testing ground for the causes and consequences of these social contingencies for frustration
but also because they allow meticulous manipulation and control of the contingencies thought to elicit (or prevent) frustration.
frustrations are still defined as aversive events but that they “generate aggressive inclinations only to the extent that they produce negative affect”
frustrations are just one of many potential sources of negative affect (Berkowitz, 1988)
Berkowitz’s reformulation implies that there are additional sources of aggres-sive inclinations, such as insults, anxiety
frus-tration is a sufficient rather than a necessary criterion for aggression
Berkowitz’s reformulation is that it names “aggressive inclinations” instead of aggression or aggressive behavior as an outcome of frustration
the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presup-poses the existence of frustration and, contrariwise, that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression
frustration is defined as an event instead of an affective state.
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