Are there any significant differences in communication apprehension changes based on the three communicative formats? 基于三种交际形式的交际忧虑变化是否存在显著差异？
To address the gap in CMC research described above, the present study was designed to investigate if CMC reduces FL communication apprehension. More specifically, the following research questions were formulated for this study: 为了解决上述 CMC 研究中的差距，本研究旨在调查 CMC 是否能减少 FL 沟通担忧。更具体地说，本研究提出了以下研究问题：
This self-report data was supported by the second data source, which was used for a pretest posttest comparison of students’ communication apprehension scores before and after the treatment discussions
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